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89-90, according to which Ebn Karrām insisted that he undertook instruction of the masses only after having acquired the necessary learning). Between the two periods of imprisonment, Ebn Karrām traveled to the Syrian/Byzantine frontier (; Samʿāni, 1999, IV, p. In Šawwāl 251/October 865, he was released from prison (on the condition that he not return, according to Faṣiḥ Kᵛāfī, I, p. Ebn Karrām’s move to Jerusalem held particular religious significance for his followers, who transmitted a hadith according to which the Prophet predicted that “at the end of days a man will appear, named Moḥammad b. 187-88), other Karrāmis found the need to address the incompatibility of the all-embracing asceticism practiced and demanded by their predecessors with a life devoted to learning (; ʿĀṣemi, I, p. 312/924), the scholar destined to become Nishapur’s leading traditionist (Ḏahabi, 2003, VI, p. The anti-Jahmi theology of Karramism was directed at embracing the full scriptural resources of the hadith movement, but in a less conservative, more theologically creative fashion than was typical for the hadith transmiters () as a source of universal moral norms, including the obligation to reason about the existence of God (Nāṣer-e Ḵosrow, p. In their effort to integrate these disparate elements and embrace the broad community of Muslims, the Karrāmiya appropriately termed themselves ; e.g., Nasafi, 1997, pp. The notorious Karrāmi doctrine that belief consists of a verbal profession alone was the polar opposite of the Jahmi view that faith was constituted by knowledge (on this, see Izutsu, pp. It was what first brought the Karrāmiya to the attention of the heresiographers (Ašʿari, pp. 90 [for some years], 96 [confinement in Dār-al-Reżā]). While the Moḥammad b Esḥāq simply continued to dress in the traditional garb of an ascetic despite his wealth and power (Bosworth, 1973, pp. Theology Whatever the circumstances behind the expulsion of Ebn Karrām from Sistān, the biographical sources, now corroborated by Karrāmi anecdotes, indicate that, in Khorasan, he was for a time on excellent terms with the Shafiʿite Ebn Ḵozayma (d. In breaking with the view of the hadith scholars on the definition of belief, Ebn Karrām was rejecting an elitist vision of Islam in favor of one that could comfortably embrace the least learned converts (Chabbi, pp. His legal system was built on the foundation of Hanafism, which had already enjoyed great success in the Islamic east, but with notable concessions to the legal opinions of the hadith scholars. It was likely only then that Ebn Karrām began to conduct successful missionary activity and gain followers from among the common people of Ḡarjestān and Ḡur and the rural population of Khorasan (Šahrastāni, 1951, p. ʿAbd Allāh, and a longer period of eight years at the hands of Moḥammad b Ṭāher. But here, too, he came into conflict with the authorities. 370), resented identification with a group condemned in prophetic traditions. Although the Karrāmiya continued throughout their history to put great emphasis on their distinctive doctrine of belief, their theological opponents came to be far more interested in other Karrāmi teachings, above all those concerning the nature of God (Faḵr-al-Din Rāzi, 2004a, pp. The Karrāmya were accused of holding views that undermined the incorporeality and immutability of God. Ebn Karrām was reportedly imprisoned by the Taherids for a total of more than ten years: a shorter period at the hands of the governor Ṭāher b. ʿAbd Allāh, which would help in resolving the chronological difficulties noted by van Ess (1980, pp. Some sources mention only one period of imprisonment (for Karrāmi anecdotes concerning imprisonment under ʿAbd Allāh b. 334) and, accompanied by hundreds of loyal followers, settled in Jerusalem, where he actively engaged in the teaching of hadith to large crowds. Karrām, who will revive the Sunna and the believers’ community ( from Mecca to Medina” (Juraqāni, I, pp. An eschatological dimension to the journey emerges from the report that Ebn Karrām took five thousand families with him, so that they might be buried in the place where the resurrected dead were to be gathered (Madelung and Walker, text p. 141, 143; it is also the only issue on which the Karrāmiya are mentioned by name in Mātoridi, pp. The Karrāmiya, although commonly classified as extreme Morjiʾites for this unprecedented view on belief (Ebn Taymiya, 1972, p. What was sometimes overlooked by their opponents was that the Karrāmiya regarded a verbal confession as merely external ( faith, they were destined for hell, not heaven.Many postulate that Ibn Tumart's intellectual progression changed course completely after this incident.He refused to complete his studies with the Andalusian scholars and decided to turn to the Islamic Orient to seek knowledge from its famed scholars."Mohammed Ibn Tumart was born around 1077 into the tribe of Al-Masmuda, which settled in Sous, in the far south of what is now Morocco. Nevertheless, he would set into motion one of the greatest revolutions in Islamic history and become the founder of a vast empire," writes Mohamed Yosri Filled with these revolutionary ideas, he performed the haj pilgrimage in Mecca, and then headed towards the Levant, passing through en route to what is now Iraq.
By contrast, Ebn Karrām is represented as the unwitting dupe of Solami and other unsavory characters. This criticism was also made against the Karrāmiya (Esfarāyeni, p. These included Shiʿites, Moʿtazilites, and Ashʿarites, as well as the kind of Sufism represented by Abu Saʿid b. 440/1049, in this last case, the historicity of the persecution as recounted in Ebn al-Monawwar, pp. 128-29; the mountain dwellers of Ḡur accepted Islam only later, Faṣiḥ Kᵛāfī, II, p. In any case, a large part of the local population came to embrace Karramism and lived under the rule of Karrāmi Ghurid (q.v.) kings (for the influence of Karramism on Ghurid art and architecture, especially the striking minaret at Jām; see Flood, pp. 602/1205-06) gave up Karramism (Bosworth, 1961, pp. 748/1348) already records the diminution and disappearance of the Karrāmi heresy (Ḏahabī, 1983, II, p. The Karrāmiya traced such practices back to Sofyān Ṯawri, the prominent jurist and founder of the Ṯawriya law school (d. 602), and (2) both of these from Sufism, which entered Khorasan from Iraq (see Melchert). 4; the hadith intended is the one found in Ebn Ḥebban, II, p. The divisions between the Karrāmiya and the mainstream Hanafites were marked clearly enough for a Ḥanafi anti-Karrāmi literature quickly to emerge.
Once there, he headed to Cordoba, hailed as a mecca of science and knowledge and the ancient capital of the Umayyad Caliphate.
For some time, he studied under the tutelage of a number of renowned scholars, such as Judge Ibn Hamdine, one of the greatest scholars of Andalusia at the time.
A characteristic of Karramism was its emphasis on an ascetic and communal lifestyle. The house in which he was born came to be a local landmark (van Ess, 1980, p. An approximate date of 190/806, suggested for Ebn Karrām’s birth (Massignon, p. According to an isolated, generally overlooked, report from what is clearly a Karrāmi source, Ebn Karrām was actually born in Mecca in 168/784-85, during a visit there by his parents—a visit that provided the occasion for his father to dress him in a patched cloak (, and have him blessed by the pious in attendance. In this interview, Ebn Karrām disclaimed any formal education, more specifically denying that he was a student of the leading Ḥanafi scholar of the region, Abu Moḥammad ʿOṯmān b. 255/869), and claimed that his knowledge came from divine inspiration. 301-2) condemns him as dishonest in relating hadith (for the claim that Ebn Karrām was a student of Ebn ʿAffān, but later broke with him and refuted him, see van Ess, 1980, p. Ḥarb that Ebn Karrām traveled to Mecca, where he remained for five years (cf. According to a Karrāmi explanation, the Taherids had been warned by astrologers that their rule would be threatened by a man from Sistān and Ebn Karrām’s notoriety made him the most likely candidate (Faṣiḥ Kᵛāfī, I, p. When the Karrāmiya insisted that they were using , all in the sense of existent (Mostamli, I, p. Ebn Karrām is reported to have taught that God was in direct contact () with his throne (for Hešām, see Ašʿarī, p. (For a table setting out the filiation of six subsects, see van Ess, 1980, p. 40-41; on this text, see Anṣāri Qomi, 2001; Maškur, p. 405/1014) until the early 12th century (the period covered in Bulliet).
According to this same report, Ebn Karrām grew up in Sistān in the town of Ḵatak in the vicinity of Bāb-al-Ṭaʿām (Faṣiḥ Ḵᵛāfi, I, pp. Afraid to follow the advice of his ministers by putting to death a man already known for his piety, the governor expelled Ebn Karrām from the province with the warning that he would be executed should he return (Ebn Ḥebbān, II, p. 21; a Karrāmi source mentions his studies in Sistān without further details; see Faṣiḥ Ḵᵛāfi, I, p. Ebn Karrām’s formal education was largely acquired after he took refuge in Khorasan, where he studied hadith, Qorʾān commentary () in several cities, including Balḵ, Marv, and Herat. 259-60), the model for his extreme asceticism (), and a popular leader, who, like Ebn Karrām, had his own troubles with the authorities (Ḏahabi, 2003, V, p. 33)—a stark admission of corporeality according to his critics, since it implied that God was extended in space. 548/1153) gives their number as twelve and identifies six of these as the principal sects: the ʿĀbediya, Tuniya, Razimiya (van Ess, 1980, p. 5), Esḥāqiya, Wāḥediya, and Hayṣamiya (Šahrastāni, 1951, p. 29; the passage on the Karrāmi subsects from Ḥākem Jošami used by Moḵtār, pp. 19-30, appears without attribution in ʿAbd-Allāh b. 133-34.) The last major sect was that of the Hayṣamiya, named after Moḥammad b. In what survives of Ḥākem Naysāburi’s and the sequel by ʿAbd-al-Ḡāfer Fāresi (d.